What is SEO?

What is SEO and how does it work?

SEO stands for search engine optimization. SEO practitioners optimize websites and web pages, and the primary goal of SEO is to drive organic (non-paid) traffic to a website by making it more attractive to search engines like Google, Bing, and Yahoo.
Search engines recommend SEO efforts that benefit both the user search experience and the page’s ranking, by featuring content that fulfills user search needs. This includes the use of relevant keywords in titles, meta descriptions, and headlines (H1), featuring descriptive URLs with keywords rather than strings of numbers, and schema markup to specify the page’s content meaning, among other SEO best practices.

How do Search Engine Work?

To understand how SEO works, it’s vital to have a basic understanding of how a search engine works. Here’s a simplified overview of how search engines work:

  1. Crawling: Search engines use automated programs called “web crawlers” or “spiders” to browse the internet. These crawlers start by visiting a few known web pages and then follow links to other pages. They use a process called “web crawling” to systematically visit and index web pages. During this process, the crawlers collect information about each web page they visit.
  2. Indexing: Once a web page is crawled, the search engine stores the information it collects in a vast database called an index. This index includes data about the content on the page, the keywords it contains, the links it points to, and various other metadata.
  3. Ranking: When a user enters a search query, the search engine’s algorithm comes into play. The algorithm analyzes the indexed data to determine which web pages are most relevant to the user’s query. It considers various factors, including the page’s content, relevance to the query, the quality and quantity of backlinks, and more.
  4. Search Results: Based on the algorithm’s calculations, the search engine generates a list of search results that it believes are the most relevant to the user’s query. These results are typically displayed on a search engine results page (SERP).
  5. Display and User Interaction: The search engine presents the SERP to the user. Users can then click on the search results to access the web pages. Search engines aim to provide a user-friendly experience, so they often include features like snippets (summaries of web pages) and rich search results (such as knowledge graphs and featured snippets) to help users find information more efficiently.
  6. Continuous Updates: Search engines continuously update their indexes and algorithms. They crawl the web regularly to discover new content and reevaluate existing pages. Algorithm updates are made to improve the quality of search results and adapt to changing user behavior and web trends.

It’s important to note that the algorithms used by search engines are highly complex and proprietary, and they consider hundreds of factors to determine the ranking of web pages. Factors like user intent, the freshness of content, and user behavior can also influence search results.

Search engines’ success as businesses depends on the public finding search engine results to be relevant to their needs. The more links a search engine like Google finds pointing from a particular type of content to a particular resource, the more confident it becomes that the linked-to resource is relevant to certain search queries. The search engine then determines that this resource deserves to be ranked highly when people make those queries.

There are three main categories of SEO: On-page SEO, Off-page SEO, and Technical SEO, all of which combine to help search engines discover, crawl, index, understand, and rank your content.

Why is SEO important?

SEO is important these days because it is one of the most effective ways to increase your website’s visibility in Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs). When people search for products or services related to your business, you want your website to appear as high up in the SERPs as possible. This is because most people only click on the top few results on the first page of SERPs, so ranking higher will give you more opportunities to attract visitors to your website.

Here are some of the specific benefits of SEO:

  • Increased website traffic: SEO can help you drive more organic traffic to your website. When your website ranks higher in SERPs, more people will see it and click through.
  • Improved brand awareness: SEO can help you build brand awareness by increasing your website’s visibility online. When people see your website appearing in SERPs, they will start to associate your brand with the products or services you offer.
  • Increased sales and revenue: SEO can lead to increased sales and revenue by driving more qualified traffic to your website. When people who are interested in what you have to offer visit your website, you are more likely to convert them into customers.
  • Long-term benefits: SEO is a long-term investment, but it can pay off handsomely over time. Once you have optimized your website for SEO, you will continue to see benefits for years to come.

Which SEO factors influence search engines?

Search engines use a wide range of factors to determine how they rank web pages in search results. These factors can be broadly categorized into on-page and off-page factors, as well as technical considerations. Here are some of the key SEO factors that influence search engines:

On-Page SEO Factors:

  1. Content Quality: High-quality, valuable, and relevant content is crucial. It should provide answers to users’ queries and satisfy their intent. Content should also be well-organized with clear headings and subheadings.
  2. Keyword Usage: Effective keyword research and strategic placement of keywords in your content, titles, headers, and meta descriptions are essential. Avoid keyword stuffing, which can lead to penalties.
  3. Meta Tags: Writing compelling and relevant meta titles and meta descriptions that encourage click-throughs from search results.
  4. URL Structure: Creating clean and descriptive URLs that include relevant keywords.
  5. Header Tags: Use header tags (H1, H2, H3, etc.) to structure your content logically and make it more readable.
  6. Internal Linking: Linking to other relevant pages within your website to improve navigation and user experience.
  7. Images and Multimedia: Optimizing images with descriptive alt text and using multimedia (videos, infographics) to enhance the user experience.

Off-Page SEO Factors:

  1. Backlinks: The quality and quantity of backlinks (links from other websites to yours) play a significant role. High-authority, relevant, and natural backlinks are valuable.
  2. Social Signals: The presence and engagement on social media platforms can indirectly impact SEO. While social signals are not direct ranking factors, they can influence traffic and brand visibility.
  3. Online Reputation: Online reviews and reputation management can affect your website’s credibility and user trust, indirectly impacting search engine rankings.

Technical SEO Factors:

  1. Website Speed: Faster-loading websites are preferred by both users and search engines. Slow-loading pages can lead to a poor user experience.
  2. Mobile-Friendliness: With the rise of mobile internet usage, having a responsive and mobile-friendly design is essential for SEO.
  3. Crawlability: Ensuring that search engine crawlers can access and index your website’s content. Proper use of robots.txt and XML sitemaps is crucial.
  4. Site Structure: A well-structured website with clear navigation helps search engines understand the hierarchy of your content.
  5. Security (HTTPS): Secure websites (using HTTPS) are given preference in search rankings. It also enhances user trust.
  6. Duplicate Content: Avoid duplicate content issues within your website, as duplicate content can confuse search engines and lead to ranking problems.
  7. Structured Data Markup: Implementing structured data (schema markup) to provide search engines with more context about your content, which can result in rich search results (e.g., rich snippets).
  8. Page Loading Errors: Ensuring that there are no broken links or errors on your website.
  9. Geographic Location (for Local SEO): For businesses with physical locations, optimizing for local search, including setting up and optimizing Google My Business listings.
  10. User Experience (UX): Offering a user-friendly experience, including clear navigation, fast page loading, and a responsive design.
  11. Content Freshness: Keeping your content up-to-date and adding new, relevant content regularly.

Search engine algorithms are constantly evolving, so it is important to stay up-to-date on the latest SEO trends and best practices. However, by focusing on the factors listed above, you can improve your website’s chances of ranking higher in SERPs and attracting more visitors.


E-E-A-T stands for Experience, Expertise, Authoritativeness, and Trustworthiness. It is a concept that Google uses to evaluate the quality of content and websites. Google believes that content that is created by experienced and knowledgeable individuals is more likely to be accurate and helpful, so it prioritizes this content in its search results.

Google uses a variety of factors to assess E-A-T, including:

  • The author’s credentials and experience: Does the author have the necessary expertise to write about the topic?
  • The quality of the content: Is the content well-written, informative, and accurate?
  • The website’s reputation: Is the website a trusted source of information?

Google also uses human quality raters to assess E-A-T. These raters review websites and content and provide feedback to Google on its quality.

E-E-A-T is especially important for websites that publish content on Your Money or Your Life (YMYL) topics. YMYL topics are those that can have a significant impact on people’s lives, such as health, finance, and legal issues. Google is extra careful to ensure that the content on these topics is high-quality and trustworthy.

Here are some tips for improving your website’s E-E-A-T:

  • Create high-quality content that is written by experienced and knowledgeable authors.
  • Make sure your website is well-designed and easy to use.
  • Build backlinks from high-quality websites.
  • Get involved in your community and build your reputation as a trusted source of information.

Improving your website’s E-E-A-T can take time and effort, but it is a worthwhile investment. By following the tips above, you can increase your chances of ranking higher in SERPs and attracting more visitors to your website.

SEO Specialities

SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is a multifaceted field, and within it, there are various specialties or sub-disciplines that SEO professionals may focus on, depending on their expertise and interests. Here are some of the most common SEO specialties:

  • E-commerce SEO: E-commerce SEO focuses on optimizing e-commerce websites to rank higher in SERPs for product and category searches.
  • Enterprise SEO: Enterprise SEO focuses on optimizing large and complex websites to rank higher in SERPs.
  • International SEO: International SEO focuses on optimizing websites for global audiences.
  • Video SEO: Video SEO focuses on optimizing videos to rank higher in SERPs.

SEO specialists can choose to specialize in one or more of these areas. By specializing in a particular area of SEO, they can develop deeper expertise and knowledge in that area, which can help them to achieve better results for their clients.

If you are looking to improve your website’s SEO, it is important to choose an SEO specialist who has the experience and expertise necessary to help you achieve your goals.

Developing your SEO skills

Developing your SEO skills is essential if you want to excel in the field of search engine optimization. SEO is a dynamic and evolving discipline, so continuous learning and skill development are crucial.

here are several other options (free and paid) to learn SEO:

  • Websites, blogs and publications.
  • Books and ebooks.
  • Videos.
  • Podcasts.
  • Webinars.
  • Conferences, events and meetups.
  • Courses.
  • Training and certification programs.
  • Groups (e.g., social media, Slack).
  • Newsletters.
  • Following experts on social media.
  • Forums.


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